预防性牙科

预防性口腔护理包括预防、诊断与治疗可影响牙齿、牙龈与颌骨的多种口腔状况、牙科异常与疾病。

全面牙科检查与诊断:口腔检查是一种对口腔的全面外观检查,牙医会拍摄必要的X光片来了解牙齿、牙医与骨骼的状况。

牙科检查与洗牙

在首次就诊时,您可以进行全面牙科检查。在常规的口腔检查中,您的牙医与洁牙师会进行以下步骤:

  • 诊断X光片(射线照片)检查: 检查龋齿、肿瘤、囊肿与骨质流失的重要工具。X光片还可以帮助检查牙齿与牙根位置。
  • 口腔癌筛查: 检查脸部、颈部、嘴唇、舌头、喉部、相关组织、牙龈是否有任何口腔癌的症状。
  • 牙龈疾病评估: 检查牙齿周围的牙龈与骨骼是否有任何牙周疾病的症状。
  • 龋齿检查: 使用特殊牙科器具检查所有牙齿表面是否有龋齿。
  • 对现有修复体的检查: 检查现有补牙、牙冠等。

专业洗牙服务

注册洁牙师通常可以为患者提供专业洗牙(牙疾病预防)服务。您的洗牙诊疗会包括口腔检查与以下服务项目:

  • 清除牙结石(牙垢): 清除牙结石(牙垢):牙结石是长期存留在牙齿表面的坚硬的牙菌斑。牙结石通常存在于牙龈线上下部,可以通过特殊牙科器具清除。
  • 清除牙菌斑: 牙菌斑是存在于牙齿上的一种粘稠、几乎透明的薄膜,如同是活菌体、食物残留与唾液组成的细菌社区。细菌会产生可使牙龈发育的毒素,而发炎则是牙周疾病的开始!
  • 抛光牙齿: 在刷牙与洁牙过程中,去除牙齿上的着色与牙菌斑。

⽛科X光片

⽛科X光片可在⽛科检查中提供⾁眼看不见的信息,是牙医必不可少的诊断工具。牙医与洁牙师可以使用该信息安全准确地检测隐藏问题并实施正确的治疗方案。如果没有X光片,问题区域则可能会不能被察觉。

牙科X光片可以显示:

  • 脓肿或囊肿
  • ⾻质疏松
  • 癌症与⾮癌性肿瘤
  • 牙齿间的龋齿
  • 发育异常
  • 不良牙齿与牙根位置
  • ⽛齿内部或⽛龈线下的疾病

早期检查并治疗⽛科疾病可以节省您的时间、⾦钱以及不必要的不适感,有助于您的⽛齿健康!

牙科X光片安全吗?

我们都暴露于自然界中的天然辐射。全口系列X光片的辐射量相当于人体暴露在自然界中一天的辐射量。

牙科X光片会产生视为安全的微量辐射。牙医在为患者拍摄牙科X光片时会采取必要的预防措施来降低患者的辐射接触量。这些预防措施包括使用铅护围来保护身体,使用现代快速成像技术来减少每次拍摄X光片的辐射接触时间。

多长时间需要拍摄⼀次⽛科X光片?

拍摄⽛科X光片取决于每位患者的口腔健康需求。您的⽛医将根据您的病史与牙科治疗史、口腔检查、症状与体征、年龄以及疾病风险等来决定您是否需要拍摄X光片。

牙医有时会推荐新患者拍摄全口系列口腔X光片。全口系列X光片通常在3至5年内都有用处。咬翼X光片(一种可以拍摄到上牙齿和下牙齿咬合在一起的X光片)通常在定期回访就诊(检查)时拍摄。牙医通常会建议您每年拍摄一或两次咬翼X光片来查看是否存在新的口腔问题。

数字化X光片

X光片(射线照相)是最为常见普遍的成像诊断技术。牙科X光片可以呈现牙齿、骨骼与周围软组织情况来帮助医生找到牙齿与骨骼问题。

牙科数字成像系统(RVG): RVG是牙科领域最新的X光片技术,可更好地帮助医生作出诊断。高质量的数字图像可立即获取。相比于传统X光片技术,数字成像降低患者的辐射接触量。

数字化X射线摄影: 一种通过使用数字X射线传感器,取代传统胶片的医学成像新方法。这种技术可快速成像,提供高品质的细节性数字射线图片。数字化X射线摄影由数字成像接受器、数字成像处理部件、图片管理系统、图片与数据存储设备、患者信息系统界面、通讯网络、操作显示设备组成。数字化X光片以电子数据形式被保存,并可通过电脑显示、查看。

曲面断层X光片(OPG)或全景牙科X光片可以展现颌骨、牙齿与牙根的全景视图。它可以通过单张胶片显示出鼻区、上颌窦、颌关节、牙齿、上颌、下颌与周围骨骼。牙医通过OPG光片来判断智齿的状况、检查是否存在囊中、肿瘤、不规则骨骼等。

氟化物治疗

氟化物是一种预防龋齿的有效药物,以不同含量天然地存在于几乎所有的食物与水供给中的矿物质。。氟化物的作用在50多年前已被人们熟知,被许多专业健康组织支持。

氟化物通过以下两种形式发挥作用:

外用氟化物:牙齿长出后,通过将氟化物涂于牙釉质外部来坚固牙齿,使牙齿更能抗龋齿。我们可以通过使用含氟牙科用品来获取该类氟化物,如牙膏、漱口水与口腔凝胶。牙医与洁牙师通常建议儿童在进行常规口腔检查时,每年两次进行专业氟化物治疗。

内服氟化物:内服氟化物可坚固长出的牙齿与牙龈内正在发育的牙齿。我们可以通过大部分食物与社区供水来获取该类氟化物。您还可以通过牙医或专业医师开的滴液或凝胶补充氟化物。通常,医师建议婴儿使用含氟滴剂,而氟片适合于儿童与青少年。监控儿童摄取的氟化物量十分重要。当牙齿还在发育中,摄取过量的氟化物会导致斑釉(牙齿上的白斑)。

虽然大部分人通过食物与水获取氟化物,但有时这些摄取不足以预防龋齿。您的牙医或洁牙师可能会因以下原因建议您进行家庭与/或专业氟化物治疗:

  • 牙齿咀嚼面的窝沟太深
  • 暴露且敏感的牙根表面
  • 不良口腔卫生习惯
  • 糖与碳水化合物摄取频繁
  • 氟化物获取量不足
  • 由疾病、治疗或药物引起的唾液分泌不足
  • 近期的龋齿病史

请记住,仅凭氟化物无法预防龋齿!每天至少刷牙两次、定期使用牙线洁牙、均衡饮食、减少食用甜食、定期去看牙医十分重要。

窝沟封闭术

窝沟封闭是一种涂布于后磨牙、前磨牙以及有深窝沟的牙齿咬合面的塑料薄涂层。超过75%的龋齿始于这些深窝沟中。这些牙齿难于清洁并且易发龋病。窝沟封闭技术可以通过封闭这些窝沟来保护牙齿,创造一个平滑、易于清洁的牙齿表面。

窝沟封闭可以长期保护牙齿受侵蚀,但牙医需要定期检查窝沟封闭层是否有磨损、破损。

接受窝沟封闭术的原因:

  • 儿童与青少年 – 儿童满6岁且磨牙(第一颗恒后牙)长出或6-16岁之间整个易发龋病的任何时间。
  • 成人 – 牙齿表面有深窝沟或点隙且不存在龋齿。
  • 乳牙 – 如果牙齿有深窝沟或点隙且儿童易发龋病。

窝沟封闭治疗包括什么?

牙医或洁牙师可以十分容易地完成窝沟封闭治疗,每颗牙齿仅需要两三分钟的时间。

首先,医师需要全面清洗需要窝沟封闭的牙齿,并用棉布将该牙齿包围起来,保持该区域干燥。将一种特殊溶液涂于牙釉质表面,帮助封闭剂紧附于牙齿上。冲洗并干燥该区域。将封闭剂小心涂布在牙釉质表面,覆盖深窝沟或点隙。根据牙医所使用的封闭剂类型,封闭剂将自行或通过特殊灯照固化。

良好的家庭护理、均衡饮食、定期牙科检查将会延长窝沟封闭的使用期限。

刷牙并使用牙线

刷牙与使用牙线洁牙是口腔卫生习惯的重要部分。您可通过保持良好口腔卫生来预防龋齿与牙周疾病。

刷牙时,请记住以下重点:

  • 使用软毛牙刷与ADA许可的含氟牙膏每天刷牙两次。您还可以使用电动牙刷。
  • 先刷牙齿内侧面,再刷外表面,之后刷咬合面。
  • 用刷毛的上端上下清洁前牙内侧面。
  • 定期使用牙斑显示剂查看牙齿上是否有任何牙菌斑。
  • 每3个月更换牙刷。如果牙刷刷毛开始变得散开,请及时更换。

使用牙线清除牙齿之间积存的牙菌斑(牙齿上的粘性物质)十分重要。在使用牙线时,您可能会出现牙龈出血现象,而随着继续使用牙线,牙龈组织变得更紧密,该现象会得到好转。

请按照以下步骤使用牙线洁牙:

  • 每天至少两次使用牙线
  • 截取一段18寸长的牙线,将两头缠绕在两手的中指上(缠指方法)
  • 用拇指与食指拿住牙线,将其插入牙缝,直至牙龈
  • 弯曲牙线,与牙面成“U”字型,并轻轻摩擦至牙龈线下
  • 适度地上下移动牙线,刮掉牙菌斑
  • 若要用牙线清洁上牙,使用12寸的牙线,将两端系在一起形成圆圈(圆圈方法)

定期刷牙并用牙线洁牙可以帮助抵抗龋齿、牙龈疾病、口腔异味与牙齿着色,减少补牙与其他昂贵治疗的需要,并增强全身健康。

定期刷牙并使用牙线洁牙、均衡饮食、定期进行常规口腔检查可以保持口腔健康。如果您每日保持口腔护理习惯,您的牙齿可伴您终身。

口腔卫生工具

口腔卫生工具是可用于保护牙齿与牙龈健康,抵抗龋齿与牙龈疾病。以下是一些常见的口腔卫生工具:

牙刷: 市场常见的牙刷多种多样。通常,牙医建议使用电动牙刷,因为电动牙刷比普通牙刷更加有效。电动牙刷的旋转或震动功能可帮助去除牙齿与牙龈周围的牙菌斑和食物残渣。如果您使用手动牙刷,您需要至少每3个月或更早更换一次。若手动牙刷刷毛开始散开,您需及时更换。您需要使用ADA承认的软毛牙刷每天刷牙两次。

牙线:牙线通常用于清除存积在牙缝中的食物残渣与牙菌斑。牙线是由尼龙或聚乙烯丝线或丝带制成,可制成不同颜色与口味。医师建议您在刷牙后使用牙线洁牙,每天两次。您需小心使用牙线,因为用力过度会损害您的牙龈组织,造成牙龈出血。

齿间清洁器: 除了牙线,牙医还会建议您使用被称作齿间牙刷或清洁器的微型牙刷来洁牙。市场常见的齿间牙刷有不同大小。您需使用微型牙刷来小心地清洁牙缝。

舌部清洁器: 舌部清洁器是用于清除舌头表面的真菌、细菌与食物残渣的口腔清洁工具。生长在舌头上的细菌与真菌与口腔异味(口臭)、糖尿病、心脏病、呼吸疾病与中风等健康问题有关。舌部清洁器通常由金属或塑料制成,设计为舌头形状。为避免吸入从舌头上清除的细菌与真菌,您需先进行舌部清洁,再刷牙。

橡胶头牙龈刺激器: 橡胶头牙龈刺激器是一种卓有成效的口腔卫生工具,用来清除牙龈线周围的牙菌斑,刺激牙龈组织的血流。您可使用牙龈刺激器顺着内外牙龈线轻轻按摩。您需将该工具储藏在阴凉干燥处,并每天使用一次。若橡胶头开始磨损,您还需将其更换。

冲牙器: 冲牙器,还被称作喷水管或喷水器,用于清除牙龈线下的残渣。通过持续向牙袋喷射小型水注,冲牙器可以清除有害细菌与食物残渣,降低患牙龈疾病的风险。这些工具需配合牙刷与牙线的使用,而不应作为其替代品。医师建议患者每年至少进行两次专业洗牙诊疗来清除深度残渣。

漱口水: 漱口水被分为两类 -治疗性漱口水与修饰性漱口水。治疗性漱口水含有可抵抗蛀牙、口臭、牙菌斑的有效成分,可预防牙龈疾病。治疗性漱口水可能会需要处方。而修饰性漱口水会暂时控制或减轻口臭,无需处方。通常,您可在刷牙后使用漱口水。

为了预防未来口腔问题,您需每天进行家庭口腔护理。您若有关于口腔卫生工具的任何问题,请咨询牙医。


Preventative Dentistry

Preventive dental care involves the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of conditions, disorders and diseases affecting the teeth, gums and jaws.

Complete dental examination and diagnosis: Oral examination is a complete visual inspection of the oral cavity, with any necessary X-rays complete exam will be done under magnification to know the condition of teeth, gums and underlying bone.

Dental Exams and Cleaning

A comprehensive dental exam will be performed by your dentist at your initial dental visit. At regular check-up exams, your dentist and hygienist will include the following:

  • Examination of diagnostic x-rays (radiographs): Essential for detection of decay, tumours, cysts, and bone loss. X-rays also help determine tooth and root positions.
  • Oral cancer screening: Check the face, neck, lips, tongue, throat, tissues, and gums for any signs of oral cancer.
  • Gum disease evaluation: Check the gums and bone around the teeth for any signs of periodontal disease.
  • Examination of tooth decay: All tooth surfaces will be checked for decay with special dental instruments.
  • Examination of existing restorations: Check current fillings, crowns, etc.

Professional Dental Cleaning

Professional dental cleanings (dental prophylaxis) are usually performed by Registered Dental Hygienists. Your cleaning appointment will include a dental exam and the following:

  • Removal of calculus (tartar): Calculus is hardened plaque that has been left on the tooth for some time and is now firmly attached to the tooth surface. Calculus forms above and below the gum line and can only be removed with special dental instruments.
  • Removal of plaque: Plaque is a sticky, almost invisible film that forms on the teeth. It is a growing colony of living bacteria, food debris, and saliva. The bacteria produce toxins (poisons) that inflame the gums. This inflammation is the start of periodontal disease!
  • Teeth polishing: Remove stain and plaque that is not otherwise removed during tooth brushing and scaling.

Dental X-rays

Dental radiographs (X-rays) are essential, preventative, diagnostic tools that provide valuable information not visible during a regular dental exam. Dentists and dental hygienists use this information to safely and accurately detect hidden dental abnormalities and complete an accurate treatment plan. Without X-rays, problem areas may go undetected.

Dental X-rays may reveal:

  • Abscesses or cysts
  • Bone loss
  • Cancerous and non-cancerous tumours
  • Decay between the teeth
  • Developmental abnormalities
  • Poor tooth and root positions
  • Problems inside a tooth or below the gum line

Detecting and treating dental problems at an early stage can save you time, money, unnecessary discomfort, and your teeth!

Are dental X-rays safe?

We are all exposed to natural radiation in our environment. The amount of radiation exposure from a full mouth series of X-rays is equal to the amount a person receives in a single day from natural sources.

Dental X-rays produce a low level of radiation and are considered safe. Dentists take necessary precautions to limit the patient’s exposure to radiation when taking dental X-rays. These precautions include using lead apron shields to protect the body and using modern, fast film that cuts down the exposure time of each X-ray.

How often should dental X-rays be taken?

The need for dental X-rays depends on each patient’s individual dental health needs. Your dentist and dental hygienist will recommend necessary X-rays based on the review of your medical and dental history, dental exam, signs and symptoms, age consideration, and risk for disease.

A full mouth series of dental X-rays is recommended for new patients. A full series is usually good for three to five years. Bite-wing X-rays (X-rays of top and bottom teeth biting together) are taken at recall (check-up) visits and are recommended once or twice a year to detect new dental problems.

Digital X-rays

X-rays (radiographs) are the most common and widely available diagnostic imaging technique. Dental X-rays are pictures of the teeth, bones, and surrounding soft tissues to help find problems with teeth and bone.

Radiovisiography (RVG): RVG is the latest X-ray technology in dentistry which helps in a better diagnosis. A high quality digital image can be obtained immediately. As compared to the conventional X-ray there is reduced radiation exposure to the patient.

Digital radiography: It is a novel method of medical imaging which uses digital X-ray sensors instead of conventional films to produce images. This technology provides faster imaging, detailed radiographs and quality digital images. Digital radiography constitutes a system with components that include a digital image receptor, a digital image processing unit, an image management system, image and data storage devices, interface to a patient information system, a communication network and a display device with operated controls. Digital radiographs are stored in the form of digital data and can be displayed on a computer monitor.

An Orthopantomogram (OPG) or panoramic dental X-ray can show a wide view of jaws, teeth and roots. It displays the nasal area, maxillary sinuses, jaw joints, teeth, upper jaw, lower jaw and surrounding bone on a single film. OPGs are used by Dentists to determine the status of wisdom teeth, to reveal cysts, tumours, bone irregularities and more.

Fluoride Treatment

Fluoride is the most effective agent available to help prevent tooth decay. It is a mineral that is naturally present in varying amounts in almost all foods and water supplies. The benefits of fluoride have been well known for over 50 years and are supported by many health and professional organisations.

Fluoride works in two ways:

Topical fluoride strengthens the teeth once they have erupted by seeping into the outer surface of the tooth enamel, making the teeth more resistant to decay. We gain topical fluoride by using fluoride containing dental products such as toothpaste, mouth rinses, and gels. Dentists and dental hygienists generally recommend that children have a professional application of fluoride twice a year during dental check-ups.

Systemic fluoride strengthens the teeth that have erupted as well as those that are developing under the gums. We gain systemic fluoride from most foods and our community water supplies. It is also available as a supplement in drop or gel form and can be prescribed by your dentist or physician. Generally, fluoride drops are recommended for infants, and tablets are best suited for children up through the teen years. It is very important to monitor the amounts of fluoride a child ingests. If too much fluoride is consumed while the teeth are developing, a condition called fluorosis (white spots on the teeth) may result.

Although most people receive fluoride from food and water, sometimes it is not enough to help prevent decay. Your dentist or dental hygienist may recommend the use of home and/or professional fluoride treatments for the following reasons:

  • Deep pits and fissures on the chewing surfaces of teeth
  • Exposed and sensitive root surfaces
  • Fair to poor oral hygiene habits
  • Frequent sugar and carbohydrate intake
  • Inadequate exposure to fluorides
  • Inadequate saliva flow due to medical conditions, medical treatments or medications
  • Recent history of dental decay

Remember, fluoride alone will not prevent tooth decay! It is important to brush at least twice a day, floss regularly, eat balanced meals, reduce sugary snacks, and visit your dentist on a regular basis.

Sealants

A sealant is a thin, plastic coating applied to the chewing surface of molars, premolars and any deep grooves (called pits and fissures) of teeth. More than 75% of dental decay begins in these deep grooves. Teeth with these conditions are hard to clean and are very susceptible to decay. A sealant protects the tooth by sealing deep grooves, creating a smooth, easy to clean surface.

Sealants can protect teeth from decay for many years, but need to be checked for wear and chipping at regular dental visits.

Reasons for sealants:

  • Children and teenagers – As soon as the six-year molars (the first permanent back teeth) appear or any time throughout the cavity prone years of 6-16.
  • Adults – Tooth surfaces without decay that has deep grooves or depressions.
  • Baby teeth – Occasionally done if teeth have deep grooves or depressions and child is cavity prone.

What do sealants involve?

Sealants are easily applied by your dentist or dental hygienist and the process takes only a couple of minutes per tooth.

The teeth to be sealed are thoroughly cleaned and then surrounded with cotton to keep the area dry. A special solution is applied to the enamel surface to help the sealant bond to the teeth. The teeth are then rinsed and dried. Sealant material is carefully painted onto the enamel surface to cover the deep grooves or depressions. Depending on the type of sealant used, the material will either harden automatically or with a special curing light.

Proper home care, a balanced diet, and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your new sealants.

Brush and Floss

Brushing and flossing are important components of your oral hygiene routine. Tooth decay and gum disease are prevented through the maintenance of good oral hygiene.

Important points to remember while brushing include:

  • Brush your teeth twice a day with a soft-bristled brush and ADA-accepted fluoride toothpaste. An electric toothbrush may also be used.
  • Place your toothbrush at a 45-degree angle to the gums and move the brush in a back and forth motion, gently.
  • Brush the outer side of teeth followed by the inner side and then the chewing surfaces of the teeth.
  • Move the tip of the brush in an up-and-down motion to clean the inside surfaces of the front teeth.
  • Use disclosing tablets, at regular periods, to reveals any plaque left on your teeth
  • Replace your toothbrush every three months or earlier, if the bristles begin to fray out

Flossing is essential to remove the accumulated plaque (sticky substance that forms on the teeth) between your teeth. You may notice some bleeding in your gums during flossing, which usually improves with continued flossing as the gums become tighter.

Follow these steps to floss your teeth:

  • Floss your teeth at least once a day
  • Cut 18 inches of dental floss and wind it around the middle finger of one hand and the rest around the middle finger of the other (Finger Wrap Method)
  • Hold the floss between the thumbs and forefingers and insert it between the teeth, toward the gums
  • Curve the floss into a U shape against each tooth and gently slide it below the gum line.
  • Move the floss mildly up and down to scrape off the plaque
  • For flossing upper teeth, use 12 inches floss and tie the ends together to form a loop (Circle or Loop Method)

Regular brushing and flossing can help prevent tooth decay, gum disease, bad oral odour, accumulation of tooth stains, reduce the need for fillings or other expensive treatment, and can help improve the overall health of your body.

Brush and floss regularly, eat a well-balanced diet, and visit your dentist for regular dental check-ups, in order to maintain a good dental health. Your teeth may last you a lifetime if you practice basic dental care.

Oral Hygiene Aids

Oral hygiene aids are tools used to keep your teeth and gums healthy and prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Some of the common oral hygiene aids include:

Toothbrushes: There are a wide range of toothbrushes available. Dentists generally recommend electric toothbrushes as they are more efficient than the manual ones. Electric toothbrushes have a rotating or vibrating motion to help remove plaque and food particles around the teeth and gums. Replace your manual toothbrush every three months or earlier, if the bristles begin to fray out. Brush your teeth twice a day with an ADA-accepted soft-bristled brush.

Dental Floss: Dental floss is commonly used to remove the food particles and plaque accumulated between your teeth. The dental floss is made from nylon filaments or ribbon composed of polyethylene and is available in a range of colours and flavours. It is advised to floss your teeth at least twice a day, after brushing. Care should be taken during flossing, as vigorous flossing can damage your gum tissue and cause bleeding gums.

Inter-dental Cleaners: In addition to dental floss, your dentist may also recommend use of miniature brushes, called inter-dental brushes or cleaners. Inter-dental brushes are available in different sizes and gently clean the sides and the spaces between the teeth.

Tongue Cleaners: A tongue cleaner is an oral hygiene aid used to eliminate fungi, bacterial build-up, and food debris from the tongue’s surface. The bacteria and fungi that grow on the tongue are associated with bad breath (halitosis) and general health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, respiratory disease and stroke. Tongue cleaners are usually made of metal or plastic and are designed to fit the shape of your tongue. Tongue cleaning should be followed by brushing to avoid absorption of dislodged bacteria and fungi.

Rubber Tip Stimulator: Rubber tip stimulators are highly effective oral hygiene aids to remove plaque around the gum line and stimulate blood flow in the gum tissue. Use the rubber stimulator to gently trace along the inner and outer gum line. It should be stored in a cool dry place and used once daily. The tip needs to be replaced when it begins to wear out.

Oral irrigators: An oral irrigator, also called a water jet or water pick, is a device used to remove the debris below the gum line. By continuously spraying tiny jets of water into the pockets of the gum, oral irrigators can remove harmful bacteria and food particles and reduce the risk of gum disease. These tools should be used in addition to brushing and flossing and not as an alternative. Professional dental cleaning is recommended at least twice a year to remove deeper debris.

Mouth Rinses: Mouth rinses are classified into two categories – therapeutic and cosmetic. Therapeutic rinses may require a prescription and contain active ingredients that fight cavities, bad breath, and plaque to prevent gum disease. Cosmetic rinses may temporarily control or reduce bad breath and are available without a prescription. Generally, mouth rinsing should be done after brushing.

To prevent future dental problems oral homecare procedures should be practiced on a daily basis. Consult your dentist for any queries regarding oral hygiene aids.